References Section

The References below include published works and in-text citations of published works that are intended as helpful material for your further reading.

  1. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (nd). Bloodborne pathogens. Standard CFR 1910.1930. Retrieved online April 12, 2018 athttps://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=10051.
  2. Anderson DJ. (2017). Infection prevention: Precautions for preventing transmission of infection. UpToDate. December 1, 2017. Retrieved online athttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/infection-prevention-precautions-for-preventing-transmission-of-infection?search=Infection%20risks%20following%20accidental



– United States, 1985-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). Healthcare-associated infections. Surveillance of occupationally acquired HIV/AIDS in healthcare personnel, as of December2010. Retrieved online athttp://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/hiv/Surveillance-Occupationally-Acquired-HIV-AIDS.html.
  2. Weber DJ. Prevention of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection among healthcare providers. UpToDate. September 27, 2017. Retrieved online fromhttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-healthcare-providers#!.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). Recommendations for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to patients during exposure-prone procedures. Retrieved online athttp://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00014845.htm
  4. Dienstag JL. (2012). Acute viral hepatitis. In: Long DI, FauciAS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal, on-line ed. 18th ed. 2012. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  5. Strasser M, Aigner E, Schmid et al. (2013). Risk of hepatitisC virus transmission from patients to healthcare workers: a prospective observational study. Infect Control HospEpidemiol.2013;34(7):759-761.
  6. Pfaender SHelfritz FASiddharta A, et al. (2018). Environmental stability and infectivity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in different human body fluids. Front Microbiol. 2018 Mar 27;9:504. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00504. eCollection2018.
  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016).Viral Hepatitis. CDC. Retrieved online athttps://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/cfaq.htm.
  2. Lauer AC, Reddemann A, Meier-Wronski CP, et al. (2014). Needlestick and sharps injuries among medical undergraduate students. Am J Infect Control.2014;42(3):235-239
  3. Cho ELee HChoi MPark SHYoo IYAiken LH. (2013). Factors associated with needlestick and sharp injuries among hospital nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud.2013;50(8):1025-1032.
  4. Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, et al (2013). Updated US Public Health Service Guidelines for the management of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus and recommendations for post-exposure prophylaxis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.2013;34(9):875-892.